Beyond the Clock: Exploring the Complexities of Women’s Domestic Roles in India Through the Lenses of Daughters and Daughters-in-Law

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Pushpendra Singh ,Falguni Pattanaik & Archana Singh & Archana Singh
Springer Nature
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This study aims to estimate the distribution of time spent on unpaid activities in India, with a focus on understanding the gendered nature of this work. The study seeks to contribute to the existing literature by providing empirical insights into the time spent on unpaid domestic activities by daughters and daughters-in-law, and by identifying the sociocultural and economic factors that contribute to this work. To achieve this objective, the study employs data from the Time Use Survey (TUS) conducted by the National Sample Survey Office (NSSO) in India from January to December 2019. The study uses a two-phase analysis to estimate the time spent on unpaid activities by daughters and daughters-in-law. In the first phase, the study estimates the average time spent in different economic and non-economic activities by gender and habitation. This analysis reveals that men tend to work longer hours in market activities and spend less time on unpaid domestic activities than women across all stages of their lifecycle. In the second phase of analysis, the study estimates the magnitude of unpaid activities carried out by daughters and daughters-in-law, and identifies the relative contributions of demographic and socioeconomic factors to the time spent on selected unpaid activities. The study employs a linear regression model to assess the impact of these factors on the time spent on unpaid work. Additionally, the study uses Fairlie’s decomposition to estimate the difference in unpaid domestic/care duties between daughters and daughters-in-law. The findings of the study highlight the critical role that household kinship ties play in determining the amount of time women spend on unpaid activities. Moreover, the study identifies that women who are less educated, marginalised, and belong to underprivileged households tend to spend more time on unpaid work.

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